The first stone houses in Canada began to be built at the end of the 17th century. in New France. A vivid example of the then-classic French classicism is the Church of Our Lady (1647) in Quebec City.
There, as in other cities on the banks of the St. Lawrence River, there are many typical old residential buildings in New France – massive, with thick walls made of large boulders and peaked roofs.
Loyalists brought British architectural traditions from the United States. A strict Georgian style, which is easiest to get to know in such open-air museums as the Verkhnekanadskaya village, reigned until the beginning of the 19th century.
Later British classicism came into fashion, which was based on the architecture of ancient Greece. Examples of classic symmetry and clear lines are the Bonsecourt Market (1847) in Montreal and the Provincial House (1847) in Charlottetown.
At the same time, they often built as they liked: for example, the Parliament building (1860) in Ottawa is a wonderful example of the neo-Gothic style; some merchants and railroad tycoons from St. John to Toronto built villas in the style of the Italian Renaissance. The eclecticism of the turn of the century was reflected in the “Queen Anne style”: turrets, bay windows and curly gables in the literal sense of the word combined a variety of architectural trends under one roof.
In the 20s. XX century steel structures made it possible to build high-rise buildings – such as, for example, a 10-story building on Place d’Armes in Montreal. In those years, strict constructivism reigned supreme in architecture. And in the 1960s, modern skyscrapers rushed up in Montreal and Toronto, where prestigious offices of numerous companies were located.
The desire to individualize the architectural style was expressed in postmodernism of the late 1980s. Along with glass and concrete, marble and gilding were again used, and buildings were decorated with stylistic elements from different eras.
The world-famous architect Moshe Safdi , who designed the Habitat-67 residential quarter in Montreal and the grandiose building of the National Art Gallery in Ottawa, became famous .
Ed Zeidlers created the avant-garde Eaton shopping center in Toronto, and the unusual building of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, built in the city of Hull according to the design of Douglas Cardinal , was perhaps the most interesting work of the Canadian architect.